Calendar and changing times and seasons.
The end of the year is a great time to think about; “why is it the end of the year”? For example the Muslim year ends at the completion of twelve lunar months. Therefore, their new year comes forward about ten days every year from our Julian-Gregorian solar calendar. That is why, for us, Ramadan seems to shift from year to year. The Jewish year however, ends early to late in September for their civil year and early to late March for their religious year.
Our 365¼ days solar calendar has only been in use for Western civilisation since the C16th. As the millennium rolled around from the C20th to C21st and all the hype that had gone with it, I decided to do some research on what makes our calendar what it is today.
Firstly, the word calendar comes from the Roman/Latin name for their priests signifying the new moon, calends. The priests would signify the beginning of the month by sighting the new moon, hence a lunar calendar. Now a lunar period where the moon returns to the same location above the earth is approximately 29 ½ days. This is called a month being derived from the word for moon. Lunar calendars were the basis of the Babylonian, Hebrew, Greek and Latin systems of time keeping. So how did we come to use a solar calendar and the present system we have today?
Once upon a time the world must have had a 360 day year with twelve lunar months of 30 days. Maybe the catastrophe which brought on the flood shifted the orbit of the planet and hence the periodic times. Twelve lunar cycles make a Muslim and a Jewish year. It is generally 355 days. This is ten days short of a solar year. The Jewish calendar is also an agricultural calendar so an extra month is added every 7 out of 19 years. Months can be either 29 or 30 days in length. The beginning of the year is designated when the aviv is seen. This month Aviv, or Nissan (the Babylonian name), was to be the first of months according to the bible. Aviv pertains to the green tips of the barley fruit showing. The priest would the wave the first fruits of the barley crop during the Passover week.
Now to the perversion of the calendar – it started with the senate regarding Julius Caesar; naming a month after him. To make his month prominent they added an extra day. Guess what the senate did with August Caesar ? You guessed it – the same. The Babylonians named various months after pagan gods. i.e. Tummuz. Other months were named by Romans or Germanic tribes after their gods. i.e. January from Janus. Longest and shortest nights became special days of worship as did equinoxes.
Even today our calendar has enough information to show that it was originally a lunar calendar.
Let’s start at March and count to the months. Let March be the equivalent to ‘the first of months’.
Hold out one finger……. March
Hold out two fingers …. April
Hold out three fingers.. May
….. five July (Julius Caesar) Quintilis means “fifth month” in Latin.
….. six August (Augustus Caesar) The month Sextillus (sex = six) was chosen for Augustus.
….. seven September ( sept Greek for seven)
….. eight October ( oct Greek for eight)
….. nine November ( nov Greek for nine)
….. ten December (deci Greek for ten)
…..eleven January (after the god Janus)
….twelve February from the Latin word februa, “to cleanse.”
Therefore, September to December retain the numbering of the original months and February retains its end of year status as this is the logical place to add a day to bring the year back to alignment (29th February in a leap year).
If you love mathematics then this site will tickle your curiosity. In 40 years a biblical year of 360 days with an added 30 day month at regular intervals is equivalent to 40 times 365 1/4 days! No wonder 40 years is the period Yah uses as is doesn’t matter when we are trying to count back years to an event. Every forty years intersect.
The days are named after the seven planetary bodies which were also the name of gods.
Sun ….. Sunday
Mars….. Tuesday (Nordic god of war)
Mercury….Wednesday (Wodin Germanic)
Jupiter… Thursday (Thor Greek god of Thunder)
Venus….Friday (Frigg Nordic god)
Saturn… Saturday (Roman god)
Whilst living in Thailand I was surprised to find the names of the days named after the same seven moving heavenly bodies.
So, in conclusion, we are living in a time that ‘times and seasons’ have been changed by the anti-Christ system that we live in presently. This blog dissects the change in times. Another blog will talk about the change in seasons (mo’adim set times).
AD “In the year of our Lord”
BC “Before Christ
After the calendar was lengthened the years did not roll around as quickly as they should. In C 16th Pope Gregory XIII added 5 years to bring the calendar back to something that informed us of when Christ was born. Josephus gave us clues when King Herod died- a lunar eclipse. The scientist/mathematian, Kepler, in the C 17th century found a lunar eclipse in 4BC and signs in the heavens around 7 and 6 BC. From these two evidences we had dates between 4 and 7 BC for the birth of Christ/Messiah. Ernest L Martin and Griffith Observatory found a much better candidate for the lunar eclipse and therefore the date of the birth of Christ. There is a total lunar eclipse on the 10th January, 1BC. There are an astounding amount of astronomical signs that happen in 3 and 2 BC. This means the wisemen/magi can arrive for the annual stationary motion of Jupiter as is moves from its forward motion to its retrograde motion from the perspective of the earth in the south sky, [it would appear to be over Bethlehem from the perspective of Jerusalem] on 25th December 2BC. It is not a baby they find but a toddler in a house.
Fifteen months early, the shepherds had found a babe in a manger as the sign of the woman, clothed with the sun, with twelve stars on her head and the moon at her feet, made its appearance in the sky, at the Feast of Trumpets 3BC. Two days later, the first of the triple conjunctions of Jupiter with Regulus in the constellation of Leo takes place. Jupiter becomes the star in many astronomical performances until its final debut at its stationary point over Bethlehem [Feast of Hanukkah 2BC]. This year it would be the equivalent to our 25th December, except of course that this calendar is not developed until C16th .
Therefore, the wisemen come very close to the year zero, except that there isn’t one. We go from 1AD to 1 BC. (Hanukkah 2BC is only days away from the beginning of 1 BC) The birth of Christ is dated as the beginning of the seventh month 3BC [11th September] only 15 months prior to the beginning of year zero.
Dionysius Exiguus was not as wrong as has been touted.
My final comment would be that the Bridegroom is coming at a set time relating to the Father’s calendar and the Bride, making herself ready, needs to know at what time His calendar will intersect with hers. As I heard from the Father in 1996…”I want you to ‘keep the feasts’ so that you can discern the times”.